Rebuilding public health and health care delivery systems has been an important component of nation-building efforts conducted after major conflicts. However, few studies have attempted to examine a comprehensive set of cases, compare the quantitative and qualitative results, and outline best practices. The study assesses seven cases of nation-building operations following major conflicts: Germany and Japan immediately after World War II; Somalia, Haiti, and Kosovo in the 1990s; and Afghanistan and Iraq since 2001. It concludes that two factors increase the likelihood of successful health outcomes: planning and coordination, and infrastructure and resources. In addition, the study argues that health can have an independent impact on broader political, economic, and security objectives during nation-building operations.